High temperature glass processing: Dr. Ken Anusavice pouring molten glass (1300 °C) into a graphite mold to produce experimental rods.
Bilayered porcelain spheres modeled from dental porcelains for thermal compatibility testing.
An experimental porcelain combination in a 3-unit fixed partial denture (FPD). Fracture within the glass veneer layer can lead to spalling failures of the FPD veneer surface. Above is the fluorescent illumination of fractures that developed within the experimental glass veneer layer of the same fixed partial denture.
A bilayered porcelain sphere that "failed" or fractured after multiple firings. Stresses from thermal processing may lead to fracture.